Raman Microscope
Spectrometer
Photometry
Conoscopy
Index Measurement
Meteorites
Carbonates
Metamorphic Rocks
Plutonic Rocks
Volcanic Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
Diatoms
Stereo Pictures

        

                 Raman Microscopy for the Amateur Mineralogist.

 

 

This page and the linked documents describe the construction, adjustment and use of a Raman microscope for the determination of minerals in rock sections. The availability of high performance laser cutoff filters and CCD detectors allows the development of such instruments with relatively few components at an affordable cost..

 

Technical description of the Raman Microscope with first version of spectrograph.

                        Page 1: Optical arrangement schematic.

                        Page 2: Details of the design.

                        Page 3: Beam splitter and filter.

                        Page 4: First results and calibration.

                        Page 5: References

 

Raman Microscope version 2 with home build spectrograph.

Improved performances of the spectrograph: wider spectral range, less field curvature...

                    Page 6: design of the spectrograph.

                    Page 7: Images and part lists.   

                    Page 8:  tests, neon spectra.

                    Page 9: tests, plastic spectra.           

                    Page 10: tests, the OH band.              

 

Raman microscope version 3 with double lasers: 532 nm and 632.8 nm.

Page 11: first design with a small laser pointer.               

Page 12: addition of a 532nm laser design.                      

 Page 13: Examples of Raman spectra with 532nm laser, comparison with He-Ne laser

 

 

Raman Microscope version 4 with triple lasers: addition of a 780 nm laser.

Page 14: laser diode tests.                                 

Page 15: construction of 780 nm laser head    

Page 16: Raman spectra examples at 780nm

 

 

 

Raman spectra of mineral single crystals.

The following pages show Raman spectra recorded with the system described above (old and new spectrograph) on single crystals. The spectra are compared to data from databases published on the web. Spectra recorded with the new spectrometer are marked with an asterisk.

 

Almandine

Ammonium Phosphate *

Anatase

Andalusite

Anhydrite *  

Apophyllite *

Aragonite

Beryl *

Calcite

Chromite

Cordierite *

Crocoite

Diopside

Epidote

Eudialyte

Fluorine

Grossular

Gypsum *

Hematite*

Inderite *

Labradorite

Limonite

Magnetite

Microcline *

Olivine

Pectolite (Larimar) *

Phlogopite

Potassium Bichromate

Prehnite *

Pyrite

Pyroxenite

Pyroxenite 532 nm *

Quartz

Rhodochrosite *

Rhodonite*

Silicon

Skutterudite

Spessartine*

Sulfur

Sun Stone

Topaz *

Tourmaline *

Vivianite *

 

 

 

Rock study: Talc Chloritoid Garnet Schist

On this page and  the following ones I have used the Raman microscope to study the mineralogy of rock sections. The first specimen  is a thick transparent section of a talc schist. A small part of the thin section of this rock is reproduced on the left side; the complete thin section can be seen HERE.

  The red arrows in pictures indicate the position of the laser spot for each spectrum. The objectives used for pictures is 2X or 4X. For Raman spectra recording, the objective is always 50X NA=0.85. The size of the spot is 2 to 5.

 

                      Page 1: Garnet - Chloritoid - Talc

                      Page 2: Glaucophane - Rutile - Quartz - Apatite

 

Rock study: Hornblende Mica Schist

The specimen studied on the following three pages is a polished slab. The  thin section of this rock is also available for pictures comparison.

 

 

 

                           Page 1 : Hornblende - Muscovite - Quartz - Calcite - Ilmenite

                           Page 2 : Albite - Muscovite - Chamosite

                           Page 3 : Calcite - Rutile - Goethite

Rock study: A polished Section of Granite

Quartz - Feldspar - Biotite

This section has also been examined with 532 nm laser.

 

Further study of a pyroxenite section from Malaga with 532 nm Raman.

Previous spectrum with He-Ne laser.

Rock study: Glaucophane prasinite from Viu Italy.

                Page 1: Glaucophane, Phlogopite, Quartz, rutile        

                 Page 2: Epidote, Titanite.

                 Page 3: Actinolite, Clinochlore.

                 Page 4: Oligoclase, Calcite.                      

                 Page 5: Muscovite, Hematite,  Magnetite.

 

           See also a thin section of this rock.

 

Rock study: Phonolite from the Boca de Tauce, Tenerife.

Page 1: Nepheline, Aenigmatite

  Page 2: Sodalite, Aegirine            

Page 3: Feldspar, Richterite   

Thin section of this rock   

Rock study: Pegmatite from Smaland Sweden with yellow needles of Rosenbuschite, Fluorite, Nepheline,Echermanite, Aegirine...

       Page 1: Polished section

Page 2: Thin section.

                     Page 3:  Images.