Rocks Radioactivity results

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The radioactivity measurements with the scintillator detectors are summarized in the 4 tables below. The measurements have been carried out with rock samples not prepared so the geometry changes from sample to sample. To make a real quantitative comparison between different rocks, they should be measured in powder form with a constant weight, a fixed container size and a reproducible position of the detector close to the sample. The results tabulated here are thus a semi quantitative comparison of different rocks radioactivity.

 

Signification of some of the columns:

 

  SiPM Voltage is set by serial connected batteries, it can be set to 28.5V or 30V

  Discriminator voltage: reference voltage for the two discriminators except CdWO4 which has only one counting line.

  Background: counting of the empty lead box.

  Total counts of background and sample.

  Net counts: total count minus background.

  Critical limit is a statistical parameter: below this limit, the measurement belongs to the background statistical distribution at 95% statistical significance.

  Minimum detectable activity is based on the Curie equation*. Above this value of the net counts, the material is considered radioactive.  

  The ratio net counts over minimum detectable activity is considered as a factor of merit for the detectors tested. If the same sample is measured with different detectors, this value can be used to compare the sensitivity of the devices. If its value is greater than one, the sample is considered as radioactive, its color will be green. If it is not radioactive, its color is red.

 

* For details about counting statistics, see Knoll Radiation detection and measurement, Wiley.

                                                                              

Sample Weight g Detector SiPM voltage Discriminator Voltage Counting Time (secondes) Background Total counts Net counts Critical limit Lc Minimum detectable activity Minimum detectable activity Bq Detected activity Bq Ratio Net_counts / Min Detect activity
Monazite Bresil opposite face 1 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 20242 22839 2597 330.98 664.7 0.1846 0.7214 3.91
Monazite Bresil opposite face 1 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 16248 18110 1862 296.54 595.8 0.1655 0.5172 3.13
Monazite Bresil Lateral close detector 2 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 20242 25205 4963 330.98 664.7 0.1846 1.3786 7.47
Monazite Bresil Lateral close detector 2 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 16248 20029 3781 296.54 595.8 0.1655 1.0503 6.35
Monazite Bresil Lateral Middel 3 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 20242 23230 2988 330.98 664.7 0.1846 0.8300 4.50
Monazite Bresil Lateral Middel 3 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 16248 18547 2299 296.54 595.8 0.1655 0.6386 3.86
Monazite Bresil Lateral bottom 4 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 20242 21291 1049 330.98 664.7 0.1846 0.2914 1.58
Monazite Bresil Lateral bottom 4 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 16248 16936 688 296.54 595.8 0.1655 0.1911 1.15
 

   The table above describes the results of some experiments with the plastic detector. The position of a small radioactive mineral (monazite) has been changed according to the figure. The plastic detector is large compared to the small surface of the SiPM. The position 1 should be the best geometrically because in front of the detector but the distance is maximum. It is seen from the table that the best position is 2, closer to the detector even if the geometry is lateral. Position 4 is the worse: bad geometry and far away from the detector.

   The picture on the left shows the window on the plastic detector which is free of black tape for the experiment described in the table below.
 

The idea to remove part of the black tape on the plastic detector is to increase the sensitivity of the detector to the beta radiation which is more absorbed by the tape than the gamma radiation. Even with a free window, the rubidium has not been detected as shown in the table. For the K40 in the form of KH2PO4, the effect of promoting the beta radiation with the window is clearly seen. The ratio in the last column of the table is about 3 times higher if the single sheet of tape is removed from the window. The effect is less for a sedimentary rock (Nonceveux): only 30% more counts is recorded if the window is free of tape. The ratio is about 1.6 for a thin section of pechblende for the measurement with the window free of tape or covered with tape.

From the two experiments described above, it can be concluded that a larger window should be left free of any coverage, in particular close to the detector to record the maximum of counts with a plastic detector. Of course, the detector so uncovered must be placed in a dark enclosure to avoid spurious light on the SiPM.

 

Sample Weight g Detector SiPM voltage Discriminator Voltage Counting Time (secondes) Background Total counts Net counts Critical limit Lc Minimum detectable activity Minimum detectable activity Bq Detected activity Bq Ratio Net_counts / Min Detect activity
RbCl 11 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 10070 10065 -5 233.45 469.6 0.1304 -0.0014 -0.01
RbCl 11 Plastic Window 30 0.25 3600 8170 8137 -33 210.28 423.3 0.1176 -0.0092 -0.08
KH2PO4  8.9 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 10070 13990 3920 233.45 469.6 0.1304 1.0889 8.35
KH2PO4  8.9 Plastic Window 30 0.25 3600 8170 9785 1615 210.28 423.3 0.1176 0.4486 3.82
KH2PO4 with 3mm Al plate 8.9 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 10070 10587 517 233.45 469.6 0.1304 0.1436 1.10
KH2PO4 with 3mm Al plate 8.9 Plastic Window 30 0.25 3600 8170 8487 317 210.28 423.3 0.1176 0.0881 0.75
KH2PO4  16.8 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 10070 17587 7517 233.45 469.6 0.1304 2.0881 16.01
KH2PO4  16.8 Plastic Window 30 0.25 3600 8170 12290 4120 210.28 423.3 0.1176 1.1444 9.73
KH2PO4  16.8 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.2 3600 8248 10597 2349 211.28 425.3 0.1181 0.6525 5.52
KH2PO4  16.8 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.25 3600 6697 7509 812 190.38 383.5 0.1065 0.2256 2.12
KH2PO4  17.4 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 8554 15966 7412 215.16 433.0 0.1203 2.0589 17.12
KH2PO4  17.4 Plastic Window 30 0.25 3600 6902 10938 4036 193.27 389.2 0.1081 1.1211 10.37
KH2PO4  17.4 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.2 3600 7708 9767 2059 204.25 411.2 0.1142 0.5719 5.01
KH2PO4  17.4 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.25 3600 6172 6941 769 182.77 368.2 0.1023 0.2136 2.09
Nonceveux Belgium 57 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 8665 9531 866 216.55 435.8 0.1211 0.2406 1.99
Nonceveux Belgium 57 Plastic Window 30 0.25 3600 7080 7528 448 195.75 394.2 0.1095 0.1244 1.14
Nonceveux Belgium 57 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.2 3600 7489 8113 624 201.32 405.4 0.1126 0.1733 1.54
Nonceveux Belgium 57 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.25 3600 5988 6348 360 180.02 362.7 0.1008 0.1000 0.99
Pechblende thin section 1 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 8542 1279399 1270857 215.01 432.7 0.1202 353.0158 2936.85
Pechblende thin section 1 Plastic Window 30 0.17 3600 9145 1411551 1402406 222.47 447.6 0.1243 389.5572 3132.84
Pechblende thin section glass on top 1 Plastic Window 30 0.2 3600 8542 131620 123078 215.01 432.7 0.1202 34.1883 284.42
Pechblende thin section glass on top 1 Plastic Window 30 0.17 3600 9145 144202 135057 222.47 447.6 0.1243 37.5158 301.70
Pechblende thin section 1 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.2 3600 8542 788699 780157 215.01 432.7 0.1202 216.7103 1802.88
Pechblende thin section 1 Plastic Window covered with tape 30 0.17 3600 9145 874635 865490 222.47 447.6 0.1243 240.4139 1933.42
 
 

T               The table below is a summary of the relative sensitivity of 3 detectors. In each example, the NaI detector has a higher net counts over minimum detectable activity ratio. It is the best choice to measure low activity of rocks and minerals. It has also the advantage of high pulses in the s range easily managed. The sensitivity of plastic and CdWO4 is comparable.

 

Sample Poids g Detector SiPM voltage Discriminator Voltage Counting Time (secondes) Background Total counts Net counts Critical limit Lc Minimum detectable activity Minimum detectable activity Bq Detected activity Bq Ratio Net_counts / Min Detect activity
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 CaWO4 30.3 0.15 3600 1222 2037 815 81.32 165.4 0.0459 0.2264 4.93
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 Plastic 31.3 0.2 3600 11610 13922 2312 250.67 504.0 0.1400 0.6422 4.59
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3092 5242 2150 129.36 261.4 0.0726 0.5972 8.22
                           
Mosandrite Sweden 34.24 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1236 4437 3201 81.79 166.3 0.0462 0.8892 19.25
Mosandrite Sweden 34.24 NaI 28.8 0.1 3600 4238 13067 8829 151.45 305.6 0.0849 2.4525 28.89
Mosandrite Sweden 34.24 NaI 28.8 0.3 3600 4007 12413 8406 147.26 297.2 0.0826 2.3350 28.28
                           
Monazite Brazil 0.37 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3727 10437 6710 142.02 286.8 0.0797 1.8639 23.40
Monazite Brazil 0.37 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3592 10067 6475 139.43 281.6 0.0782 1.7986 23.00
Monazite Bresil Lateral close detector 2 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 20242 25205 4963 330.98 664.7 0.1846 1.3786 7.47
Monazite Bresil Lateral close detector 2 0.37 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 16248 20029 3781 296.54 595.8 0.1655 1.0503 6.35

 

 

                 Table with all the results. It figures some measurement with the LYSO detector. LYSO can easily measure the high activity samples but due to its high background (radioactivity of lutetium), it cannot compete with the 3 other detectors for low activity samples. Compare LYSO and NaI for the samples Blue apatite from India and Phalaborwa 1 South Africa. The LYSO detector is no more used for mineral radioactivity investigations but it is still used to check the equipment because there is no need of a radioactive material to send pulses to an amplifier and second, it has the higher pulse amplitude which can be detected easily. As can be seen in the table below, a lot of the minerals chosen are radioactive, an exception is the two meteorites.

 

Sample Weight g Detector SiPM voltage Discriminator Voltage Counting Time (secondes) Background Total counts Net counts Critical limit Lc Minimum detectable activity Minimum detectable activity Bq Detected activity Bq Ratio Net_counts / Min Detect activity
Bucraa phosphate Maroco 22.3 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1275 2158 883 83.07 168.8 0.0469 0.2453 5.23
Gabbro Fuerteventura 83.9 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1236 2289 1053 81.79 166.3 0.0462 0.2925 6.33
KH2PO4 25.5g 14 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1275 1602 327 83.07 168.8 0.0469 0.0908 1.94
Lu2O3 5 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1275 8129 6854 83.07 168.8 0.0469 1.9039 40.59
Mosandrite Sweden 34.24 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1236 4437 3201 81.79 166.3 0.0462 0.8892 19.25
RbCl 11 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1275 1221 -54 83.07 168.8 0.0469 -0.0150 -0.32
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 CaWO4 28.3 0.15 3600 1420 1829 409 87.66 178.0 0.0495 0.1136 2.30
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 CaWO4 30.3 0.15 3600 1222 2037 815 81.32 165.4 0.0459 0.2264 4.93
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 CaWO4 30.3 0.12 3600 1768 2551 783 97.82 198.3 0.0551 0.2175 3.95
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 CaWO4 30.3 0.17 3600 1328 1736 408 84.78 172.3 0.0479 0.1133 2.37
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 CaWO4 30.3 0.15 3600 1492 2048 556 89.86 182.4 0.0507 0.1544 3.05
Blue Apatite India 42.5 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 684607 715348 30741 1924.87 3852.4 1.0701 8.5392 7.98
Blue Apatite India 42.5 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 684745 715696 30951 1925.06 3852.8 1.0702 8.5975 8.03
Monazite Madagascar 14 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 684804 1506294 821490 1925.15 3853.0 1.0703 228.1917 213.21
Monazite Madagascar 14 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 652669 1254594 601925 1879.44 3761.6 1.0449 167.2014 160.02
Pechblende Czechia 58.5 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 685164 22809996 22124832 1925.65 3854.0 1.0706 6145.7867 5740.73
Pechblende Czechia 58.5 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 643880 14357125 13713245 1866.74 3736.2 1.0378 3809.2347 3670.39
Pechblende section Czechia 1 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 684804 802322 117518 1925.15 3853.0 1.0703 32.6439 30.50
Pechblende section Czechia 1 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 652669 718494 65825 1879.44 3761.6 1.0449 18.2847 17.50
Phalaborwa 1 South Africa 87.5 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 684693 692000 7307 1924.99 3852.7 1.0702 2.0297 1.90
Phalaborwa 1 South Africa 87.5 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 684841 692230 7389 1925.20 3853.1 1.0703 2.0525 1.92
Thorium Nitrate 1 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 685164 3104749 2419585 1925.65 3854.0 1.0706 672.1069 627.81
Thorium Nitrate 1 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 643880 1992209 1348329 1866.74 3736.2 1.0378 374.5358 360.88
U3O8 15.47 LYSO 28.5 0.15 3600 685164 2591158 1905994 1925.65 3854.0 1.0706 529.4428 494.55
U3O8 15.47 LYSO 28.5 1 3600 643880 1340395 696515 1866.74 3736.2 1.0378 193.4764 186.42
Background AM vs PM   NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3701 3976 275 141.53 285.8 0.0794 0.0764 0.96
Background AM vs PM   NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3580 3845 265 139.19 281.1 0.0781 0.0736 0.94
Background not shielded 1 NaI 30 0.15 3600 3260 35224 31964 132.83 268.4 0.0745 8.8789 119.11
Background not shielded 1 NaI 30 1 3600 2353 20687 18334 112.85 228.4 0.0634 5.0928 80.27
Bastnaesite France 115 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3761 3732 -29 142.67 288.0 0.0800 -0.0081 -0.10
Bastnaesite France 116 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3623 3622 -1 140.03 282.8 0.0785 -0.0003 0.00
Betafite Madagascar 8.55 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3216 1640284 1637068 131.93 266.6 0.0740 454.7411 6141.39
Betafite Madagascar 8.55 NaI 28.5 0.3 3600 3127 1602133 1599006 130.09 262.9 0.0730 444.1683 6082.49
Blue Apatite India 60 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3727 79934 76207 142.02 286.8 0.0797 21.1686 265.76
Blue Apatite India 60 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3592 78004 74412 139.43 281.6 0.0782 20.6700 264.28
Blue Apatite India 16 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3727 31513 27786 142.02 286.8 0.0797 7.7183 96.90
Blue Apatite India 16 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3592 30640 27048 139.43 281.6 0.0782 7.5133 96.06
Bretagne Ile de Aber 135 NaI 30 0.15 3600 4335 4564 229 153.17 309.0 0.0858 0.0636 0.74
Bretagne Ile de Aber 135 NaI 30 0.3 3600 4196 4403 207 150.69 304.1 0.0845 0.0575 0.68
Bretagne pointe du Van 237 NaI 30 0.15 3600 4335 6172 1837 153.17 309.0 0.0858 0.5103 5.94
Bretagne pointe du Van 237 NaI 30 0.3 3600 4196 5986 1790 150.69 304.1 0.0845 0.4972 5.89
Bucraa phosphate Maroco 22.3 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3803 7682 3879 143.46 289.6 0.0805 1.0775 13.39
Bucraa phosphate Maroco 22.3 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3682 7435 3753 141.16 285.0 0.0792 1.0425 13.17
Bucraa phosphate Maroco 5 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3976 4644 668 146.69 296.1 0.0822 0.1856 2.26
Bucraa phosphate Maroco 5 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3845 4501 656 144.25 291.2 0.0809 0.1822 2.25
Burangaite Rwanda 117 NaI 28.8 0.1 3600 4238 10742 6504 151.45 305.6 0.0849 1.8067 21.28
Burangaite Rwanda 117 NaI 28.8 0.3 3600 4007 10125 6118 147.26 297.2 0.0826 1.6994 20.58
El Hammami meteorite 38.9 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3216 3222 6 131.93 266.6 0.0740 0.0017 0.02
El Hammami meteorite 38.9 NaI 28.5 0.3 3600 3127 3130 3 130.09 262.9 0.0730 0.0008 0.01
Gabbro Fuerteventura 83.9 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 4359 10139 5780 153.59 309.9 0.0861 1.6056 18.65
Gabbro Fuerteventura 83.9 NaI 30.3 2 3600 2577 5065 2488 118.10 238.9 0.0664 0.6911 10.41
Granite Lac Fabrge France 83.8 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 4309 5062 753 152.71 308.1 0.0856 0.2092 2.44
Granite Lac Fabrge France 83.8 NaI 30.3 2 3600 2606 2839 233 118.76 240.2 0.0667 0.0647 0.97
Kasolite Katanga 10.4 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3216 52472 49256 131.93 266.6 0.0740 13.6822 184.78
Kasolite Katanga 10.4 NaI 28.5 0.3 3600 3127 54012 50885 130.09 262.9 0.0730 14.1347 193.56
KH2PO4 25.5g 25.5 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3803 5618 1815 143.46 289.6 0.0805 0.5042 6.27
KH2PO4 25.5g 25.5 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3682 5438 1756 141.16 285.0 0.0792 0.4878 6.16
Lu2O3 5 g 5 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3803 40148 36345 143.46 289.6 0.0805 10.0958 125.49
Lu2O3 5 g 5 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3682 38942 35260 141.16 285.0 0.0792 9.7944 123.70
Meteorite NWA904 65.4 NaI 30 0.15 3600 3175 3372 197 131.08 264.9 0.0736 0.0547 0.74
Meteorite NWA904 65.4 NaI 30 0.3 3600 3079 3274 195 129.09 260.9 0.0725 0.0542 0.75
Monazite Brazil 0.37 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3727 10437 6710 142.02 286.8 0.0797 1.8639 23.40
Monazite Brazil 0.37 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3592 10067 6475 139.43 281.6 0.0782 1.7986 23.00
Monazite Madagascar 14 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3761 1368323 1364562 142.67 288.0 0.0800 379.0450 4737.31
Monazite Madagascar 14 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3623 1321801 1318178 140.03 282.8 0.0785 366.1606 4661.79
Mosandrite on detector 34.24 NaI 28.8 0.1 3600 4238 20126 15888 151.45 305.6 0.0849 4.4133 51.99
Mosandrite on detector 34.24 NaI 28.8 0.3 3600 4007 19082 15075 147.26 297.2 0.0826 4.1875 50.72
Mosandrite Sweden 34.24 NaI 28.8 0.1 3600 4238 13067 8829 151.45 305.6 0.0849 2.4525 28.89
Mosandrite Sweden 34.24 NaI 28.8 0.3 3600 4007 12413 8406 147.26 297.2 0.0826 2.3350 28.28
Pechblende Czechia 58.5 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3742 21759235 21755493 142.31 287.3 0.0798 6043.1925 75717.55
Pechblende Czechia 58.5 NaI 28.5 1 3600 2205 10755130 10752925 109.24 221.2 0.0614 2986.9236 48614.46
Pechblende thin section Czechia 1 NaI 30 0.15 3600 3260 487893 484633 132.83 268.4 0.0745 134.6203 1805.89
Pechblende thin section Czechia 1 NaI 30 1 3600 2353 251775 249422 112.85 228.4 0.0634 69.2839 1092.04
Pechblende thin section glass on top 1 NaI 30 0.15 3600 3260 179094 175834 132.83 268.4 0.0745 48.8428 655.21
Pechblende thin section glass on top 1 NaI 30 1 3600 2353 80912 78559 112.85 228.4 0.0634 21.8219 343.95
Phalaborwa 1 South Africa 87.55 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3742 15164 11422 142.31 287.3 0.0798 3.1728 39.75
Phalaborwa 1 South Africa 87.55 NaI 28.5 1 3600 2205 6048 3843 109.24 221.2 0.0614 1.0675 17.37
Phalaborwa 2 South Africa 42.8 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3742 6398 2656 142.31 287.3 0.0798 0.7378 9.24
Phalaborwa 2 South Africa 42.8 NaI 28.5 1 3600 2205 2920 715 109.24 221.2 0.0614 0.1986 3.23
Phalaborwa 3 South Africa 87.7 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3216 5928 2712 131.93 266.6 0.0740 0.7533 10.17
Phalaborwa 3 South Africa 87.7 NaI 28.5 0.3 3600 3127 5747 2620 130.09 262.9 0.0730 0.7278 9.97
Phalaborwa 4 South Africa 45.9 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3120 3300 180 129.94 262.6 0.0729 0.0500 0.69
Phalaborwa 4 South Africa 45.9 NaI 28.5 1 3600 1927 1965 38 102.12 207.0 0.0575 0.0106 0.18
Phosphate Kola Russia 193 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3098 6761 3663 129.49 261.7 0.0727 1.0175 14.00
Phosphate Kola Russia 193 NaI 28.5 1 3600 1770 2993 1223 97.87 198.5 0.0551 0.3397 6.16
Phosphosiderite Portugal 53.27 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3595 10416 6821 139.49 281.7 0.0782 1.8947 24.22
Phosphosiderite Portugal 53.27 NaI 28.5 1 3600 1678 4176 2498 95.30 193.3 0.0537 0.6939 12.92
RbCl 11g 11 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3803 4396 593 143.46 289.6 0.0805 0.1647 2.05
RbCl 11g 11 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3682 4195 513 141.16 285.0 0.0792 0.1425 1.80
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 NaI 28.3 0.3 3600 6739 8281 1542 190.98 384.7 0.1068 0.4283 4.01
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 NaI 28.3 0.5 3600 6503 8027 1524 187.60 377.9 0.1050 0.4233 4.03
Rosenbushite Sweden 90.2 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 4270 16083 11813 152.02 306.7 0.0852 3.2814 38.51
Rosenbushite Sweden 90.2 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 4137 15637 11500 149.63 302.0 0.0839 3.1944 38.08
Rosenbushite Sweden 90.2 NaI 28.8 0.1 3600 4238 14865 10627 151.45 305.6 0.0849 2.9519 34.77
Rosenbushite Sweden 90.2 NaI 28.8 0.3 3600 4007 14163 10156 147.26 297.2 0.0826 2.8211 34.17
Scheelite Austria 140 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3098 4552 1454 129.49 261.7 0.0727 0.4039 5.56
Scheelite Austria 140 NaI 28.5 1 3600 1770 2515 745 97.87 198.5 0.0551 0.2069 3.75
Shale La Roche Belgium 50.1 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 4359 5493 1134 153.59 309.9 0.0861 0.3150 3.66
Shale La Roche Belgium 50.1 NaI 30.3 2 3600 2577 3042 465 118.10 238.9 0.0664 0.1292 1.95
Sodalite Norway 45.9 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3761 7275 3514 142.67 288.0 0.0800 0.9761 12.20
Sodalite Norway 45.9 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3623 7041 3418 140.03 282.8 0.0785 0.9494 12.09
Sphene Kola Russia 370 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3098 6835 3737 129.49 261.7 0.0727 1.0381 14.28
Sphene Kola Russia 370 NaI 28.5 1 3600 1770 2956 1186 97.87 198.5 0.0551 0.3294 5.98
Tenerife Los roques green rock 37 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3701 6947 3246 141.53 285.8 0.0794 0.9017 11.36
Tenerife Los roques green rock 37 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3580 6726 3146 139.19 281.1 0.0781 0.8739 11.19
Thorium Nitrate 14.7 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3818 4357505 4353687 143.75 290.2 0.0806 1209.3575 15002.36
Thorium Nitrate 14.7 NaI 28.5 1 3600 2048 1994811 1992763 105.28 213.3 0.0592 553.5453 9344.02
U3O8 15.47 NaI 28.5 0.15 3600 3818 2431068 2427250 143.75 290.2 0.0806 674.2361 8364.06
U3O8 15.47 NaI 28.5 1 3600 2048 241048 239000 105.28 213.3 0.0592 66.3889 1120.67
Xenotime 2.54 NaI 30.3 0.1 3600 3761 21334 17573 142.67 288.0 0.0800 4.8814 61.01
Xenotime 2.54 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3623 20577 16954 140.03 282.8 0.0785 4.7094 59.96
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 NaI 30.3 0.3 3600 3092 5242 2150 129.36 261.4 0.0726 0.5972 8.22
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 NaI 30.3 0.5 3600 3006 5096 2090 127.55 257.8 0.0716 0.5806 8.11
Background not shielded 1 Plastic 30 0.2 3600 9145 14916 5771 222.47 447.6 0.1243 1.6031 12.89
Background not shielded 1 Plastic 30 0.17 3600 8542 16165 7623 215.01 432.7 0.1202 2.1175 17.62
Gabbro Fuerteventura 83.9 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 14020 17246 3226 275.46 553.6 0.1538 0.8961 5.83
Gabbro Fuerteventura 83.9 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 11403 13729 2326 248.42 499.6 0.1388 0.6461 4.66
KH2PO4 25.5g 25.5 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 15777 20811 5034 292.21 587.1 0.1631 1.3983 8.57
KH2PO4 25.5g 25.5 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 12734 16073 3339 262.52 527.7 0.1466 0.9275 6.33
RbCl 11g 11 Plastic 30.3 0.1 3600 20242 19447 -795 330.98 664.7 0.1846 -0.2208 -1.20
RbCl 11g 11 Plastic 30.3 0.3 3600 16248 15489 -759 296.54 595.8 0.1655 -0.2108 -1.27
RbCl 11g 11 Plastic 30.3 0.2 3600 14020 12830 -1190 275.46 553.6 0.1538 -0.3306 -2.15
RbCl 11g 11 Plastic 30.3 0.25 3600 11403 10402 -1001 248.42 499.6 0.1388 -0.2781 -2.00
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 Plastic 30.3 0.1 3600 19826 21132 1306 327.57 657.8 0.1827 0.3628 1.99
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium 113 Plastic 31.3 0.2 3600 11610 13922 2312 250.67 504.0 0.1400 0.6422 4.59
Rock from Nonceveux Belgium